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Editorial Reviews. Book Description. Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate.
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This chapter presents a variety of resources for higher education professionals interested in applying appreciative education principles to their work. Volume , Issue The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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Acacia Parks Ph.D. | Psychology Today
View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract This chapter presents a variety of resources for higher education professionals interested in applying appreciative education principles to their work. We believe that this approach will encourage and develop an open mindset in students Dweck , with their analysis of positive aspects of study or performance informing their areas for improvement.
Given the high levels of performance anxiety and perfectionism in music education Osborne and Kenny ; Patston , , a positive approach to problem solving will be helpful. Kirschenbaum et al. In the music studio setting, attention may relate to a student reminding themselves of the correct fingering position before playing a phrase. Reinforcement may relate to repeating a phrase or passage which was executed correctly. The concept of fixed- versus growth-mindset has recently received attention in the education literature Coyle ; Dweck ; Heyman et al.
Students with a fixed mindset believe that they have a fixed level of intelligence or talent. The belief that musicians are born and not made has been a dominant view in music since the first attempts to predict music talent by Seashore in the s Lehmann and Gruber Conversely, those with a growth mindset believe that their talents can be developed, and that through application and accepting the challenges involved in developing new skills, students will be rewarded with improvement Coyle ; Dweck The idea of a growth mindset has obvious applications in a music studio.
Using the PIMS model, we encourage studio music teachers to specifically praise processes such as problem solving, technical development, determination, or concentration within a musical context.
We predict that engagement followed by the motivation generated by a growth mindset will foster in students a love of music and a love of learning. Students are faced with the challenges of developing their instrumental technique, learning the language of music, and then combining these to play and perform music. In music instruction, process praise would be given by the teacher for the way in which a student uses strategies, such as goal planning and execution, effort, application of specific technique or demonstration of engagement in the task.
Such praise supports the notion of a flexible mindset and gives the message to the student that their music learning and performance can be improved. A number of studies Aronson et al.
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According to authors such as Kupers et al. Students can easily become focused on errors and become harsh self-critics Kupers et al. Such mindsets can lead to the development of perfectionism or music performance anxiety Patston By utilizing the PIMS model in lessons, teachers can then ask students to apply the model in their post-performance review. They can use positive priming before the performance and think about their character strengths. They can then reflect on the positive moments which occurred in the performance, before contextualising the performance with process praise in relation to their macro performance goals, rather than fixating on what are usually minor errors or lapses.
The field of PP and its applications for education is growing. Researchers in the field of positive education have called for teachers to integrate the principles of PP into their teaching methods and approaches. We have answered this call with respect to studio music instruction and have put forward the PIMS model. The PIMS model offers an evidence-based four-step process based on the research evidence coming from positive psychology, as it applies to studio music education.
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We suggest that PIMS has the potential to increase student engagement and learning in the music studio setting through beginning lessons in a positive way, affirming strengths, stopping to recognise achievement in addition to correcting errors , and providing specific, process-related feedback.
Tim Patston, Email: ua. Lea Waters, Email: ua. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Psychology of Well-Being. Psychol Well Being. Published online Oct Tim Patston and Lea Waters. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Corresponding author. Received Dec 16; Accepted Oct 9. Keywords: Positive psychology, Studio music instruction, Process praise, Character strengths, Music pedagogy. Background Positive psychology PP is a relatively new field Duckworth et al. Studio Music Instruction in Schools Instrumental music—education content, quality, and purpose vary greatly throughout the world.
Open in a separate window. Step 1: Positive Priming Most conventional studio lessons follow a familiar path: a warm up followed by technical exercise, followed by fixing mistakes in repertoire, followed by playing a piece Duke and Henninger Step 2: Strengths Spotting One of the prominent topics of study in PP is that of character strengths. Step 4: Process Praise The concept of fixed- versus growth-mindset has recently received attention in the education literature Coyle ; Dweck ; Heyman et al. Conclusion The field of PP and its applications for education is growing.
Contributor Information Tim Patston, Email: ua. Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Flow among musicians: measuring peak experiences of student performers. Journal of Research in Music Education. Character strengths in english literature. At the heart of what we do: values education at the centre of schooling. The final report of the values education good practice schools project—stage 2. Carlton South: Curriculum Corporation; Character education: parents as partners.
Educational Leadership. Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development. Character strengths and well-being in Croatia: an empirical investigation of structure and correlates. Journal of Research in Personality. The effects of a positive mindset trigger word pre-performance routine on the expressive performance of junior high age singers.